equivalent of 2% of energy in crude is used to extract oil from the ground.
equivalent of 1.5% of energy in oil leaving the oilfield is used to transport oil via pipeline, rail car or truck to refinery.
equivalent of 12.5% of energy in the oil arriving at the refinery is used to refine oil into various products.
Each of the steps above uses combustion within the process, which is only 30% efficient at best. Hence at each step there is a loss of 70%.
Fuel to Distance Traveled
78.5% of gasoline/diesel energy in the vehicle tank is lost due to thermodynamic limitations of cyclic engine, internal friction and parasitic losses
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